The Arab Republic of Egypt has an estimated population of 84.5 million (UN, 2010). The capital is Cairo. Egypt has an area of 1 million sq km (386,874 sq miles). The main language is Arabic.
Home to one the world's greatest civilisations, Egypt was partially independent from the UK in 1922, but its full sovereignty was only achieved in 1952 by the overthrow of the British. The rapid growth of the Egyptian population, which is the largest in the Arab world, and the lack of land are the new challenges that face the current government.
Like in many Islamic nations, the family law in Egypt is traditionally based on Sharia Law, which tend to favor the social position of men. In Egypt, women’s roles derive much of their legitimacy from the Qur'an. Violence against women such as domestic violence and female genital mutilation are largely widespread. In Egypt, a woman’s husband is legally permitted to physically punish their wives in cases of disobedience or infidelity. While men can take up to four wives, women may have only one husband.